Being stressed out or nervous right before a big event such as an examination or job interview are among the common events causing a person to pee frequently. It’s also normal to urinate more than usual when you’re exposed to cold temperatures that are unusual on a daily basis. Getting regular health screening can help a person identify if there is a problem with their urine which is often associated with the urinary system. In this DoctorOnCall’s article, we will learn about urine, specifically on polyuria, oliguria and anuria.

It may seem to most people that these three words are new to them, and they may find it difficult to understand at first, but one thing is certain, these three words describe a number of different conditions in the urine, and they are often associated with a number of medical problems. You might want to know more about your ordinary urine prior to knowing what’s going on with your urine.

Filtered blood and urine production as a waste product are the major functions of the urinary system. It also assists in regulating blood pressure and maintaining the biochemical level of a person’s blood. The urinary system is made up of organs such as kidneys and bladders, along with ureters and urethra. In 24 hours, the normal colour of urine should be pale yellow with a volume or output between 750 and 2000 mL. Changes in urine volume are the three main terms of polyuria, anuria and oliguria.


Urine output of more than 3L per day. Polyuria should not be confused with an increase in urinary frequency, which refers to the need to urinate multiple times during the day but within normal limits. Polyuria is common in adults taking antihypertensive medications such as diuretics and underlying conditions such as uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.


In 24 hours, urine volume of less than 50 ml. Renal impairment, obstruction to the urinary tract, such as kidney stones or severe infection are some of the causes for anuria.


For 24 hours, urine output is less than 400 ml Many causes of oliguria are present, and in particular three categories: prerenal; conditions that affect blood supply to the kidney or postrenal; urine disturbances.

Prerenal causes: loss of blood from bleeding, loss of fluid or insufficient fluid replacement in dehydrated condition, heart disease such as myocardial infarction and heart failure, extreme response to infection known as sepsis

Renal (kidney) causes: insults to the kidney such as from contrast agent from x-ray imaging test, toxic drugs to kidney (nephrotoxic) such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics or muscle injury causing rapid breakdown of damaged muscle known as rhabdomyolysis

Postrenal causes: mechanical obstruction, such as blocked urinary catheters and urinary stones, or dysfunction of the urinary calculi/ sphincter due to anticholinergic drugs, urinary retention after surgery and severe impacted stool

It is important to note that polyuria indicates an excess production of urine, oliguria denotes a low urine output, and anuria signifies the absence of urine output.  These three terms are descriptions of symptoms and not disease. Since there are several causes of changes in urine production, medical professionals should seek advice as soon as possible after the occurrence of a sudden change in normal urine to determine what may have caused these changes.  The treatment of each condition is different according to the underlying causes. It is exclusively for adults and differs from children or infants when it comes to the information above on urine production and changes. Feel free to ask healthcare professionals if you have any questions or enquiry regarding your urine. You may want to meet doctors and discuss urine if you are worried about it.

It is important to keep your bladder healthy as it does affect the urine. Ensuring that the urine is within the normal range not only means your body is in great shape but also reduces the chances for many other diseases. To have a healthy bladder, you should:

eat healthy food such as blueberries, cranberry, green beans, skinless chicken, egg whites, nuts and fish

exercise regularly of at least 150 minutes per week

do pelvic floor muscle exercises such as Kegel exercises help to strengthen the pelvis muscle

keep a healthy weight as it can help the bladder to function properly

wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes to avoid infections and sore skin

drink plenty of plain water to improve urine system

wipe from front to back after using the toilet (specifically women) to avoid accidental infection from the back travelling to the front that can cause symptoms

urinate after sex to clear possible organisms from infecting the bladder

use the bathroom as needed and avoid holding urine too long can improve urinary system

take enough time to fully empty bladder when urinate ensuring no urine left that can cause discomfort


Prosper Health

Health Blog

Thursday, May 23, 2024